The following is one of over 75 programs & documentation included with Hydro-CD by Dodson

WQRRS: Water Quality For River-Reservoir Systems Software Package

VERSION/DATE: January 1989

OPERATING SYSTEM: DOS

DISTRIBUTOR: HEC

DOCUMENTATION (690 Pages):

WQRRS: Water Quality for River-Reservoir Systems User's manual October 1978 US Army Corps of Engineers Hydrology Engineering Center

Documentation Includes:

Thermal Simulation of Lakes November 1977

WEATHER January 1986

SHP - Stream Hydraulics Package June 1988

GEDA - Geometric Elements from Cross Section Coordinates

ABSTRACT

The WORRS package of computer programs has been assembled to evaluate water quality (ecologic cycle) condft7ions in river and reservoir systems. The program provides vertical profiles of water quality conditions in reservoirs and longitudinal conditions in river networks of branching channels and/or around islands. This type of modeling is referred to as one-dimensional modeling. The package includes three separate modules that are able to be integrated into a system analysis or to be used as separate programs. The reservoir module (WORRSR) is able to accept binary input from upstream river analysis output. The stream network hydraulics module (SHP) is able to accept binary input from upstream reservoir discharge output. SHP can compute flow conditions using (1) input of stage-flow relationships, (2) backwater equations, (3) hydrologic routing (i.e., Muskingum or modffled Puls), and (4) hydraulic routing (i.e., kinematic wave or St Venant equations). The stream water quality module (WQRRSO) must be provided binary input from SHP and can accept binary input from upstream reservoir discharge concentrations (WQRRSR). Three other programs are also included in the WQRRS package as optional utility programs. GEDA manipulates the channel crosssection data into proper format for SHP, WEATHER manipulates the National Weather Service data into proper units and format for HEATX, and HEATX reads the output from WEATHER and computes the equilibrium temperatures and heat exchange coefficients for input to either WORRSR or WQRRSO.

WQRRS: WATER QUALITY FOR RIVER-RESERVOIR SYSTEMS USER'S MANUAL October 1978 US Army Corps of Engineers Hydrology Engineering Center

BACKGROUND

A comprehensive ecological simulation model for reservoirs and estuaries was originally developed by Chen and Orlob under a Title II contract with the Office of Water Resources Research. During this same period, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) contracted with Water Resources Engineers (WRE) to combine the reservoir simulation model mentioned above and a river simulation model developed by Norton to form a model capable of simulating the water quality within an entire basin and to apply the model to the Trinity River system in Texas. This model was capable of analyzing 18 different physical, chemical, and biological water quality parameters in a river or reservoir or a river reservoir system. A preprocessor was developed by the HEC to simplify preparation of input data and these two programs together were then called the "Water Quality for River-Reservoir Systems" (WQRRS) model.

The original river routines analyzed dynamic water quality conditions but were developed to handle only steady flow hydraulic conditions. In September 1974, the HEC contracted with Resource Management Associates to add streamflow routing capability to the WQRRS model. This provided the model with a capability to dynamically route streamflows using either the St. Venant equations, Kinematic Wave, Muskingum, or Modified Puls routing methods. The capability of the model to analyze steady flow conditions was expanded to include both a backwater analysis and a stage-flow relationship specified by input data.

In 1976, the HEC contracted with the joint venture of Resource Management Associates and Tetra Tech, Inc. to add to WQRRS the capability of analyzing branched and looped stream systems and to add additional water quality and biological constituents to more adequately represent stream and reservoir environments.

With these latter modifications came new data requirements which were incompatible with the WQRRS preprocessor. In January 1978, the HEC contracted with Resources Management Associates to integrate the advantageous elements of the preprocessors into the simulation modules and expand and document their capabilities. All of the above work was done under the direction of Mr. R. G. Willey of the HEC.

The basic structure and capabilities of the later versions of the WQRRS model is described below.

MODEL STRUCTURE

The WQRRS model consists of three separate but integral modules; the reservoir module, the stream hydraulic module, and the stream quality module. The reservoir and stream hydraulics modules are stand-alone programs and may be executed, analyzed and interpreted independently. The stream quality module, however, has no hydraulic computation capability and requires a hydraulic data file which is generated by the stream hydraulics module. The three computer programs may also be integrated for a complete river basin water quality analysis through automatic storage of results for input to downstream simulations. The subsequent analysis may be a part of the same simulation or an entirely separate model execution. Input/output compatibility for downstream analysis is consistent among modules. Many subroutines are similar if not identical among the reservoir and stream modules.

An example of the downstream data saving technique would be to run the reservoir module and write an output discharge tape and an associated water quality tape. The reservoir discharge then serves as inflow tributary data to the stream hydraulics module which, along with additional tributary and geometric information, provide the necessary hydrologic data for the hydraulic computation program. The stream flow results are then saved for the stream quality module. The tape of reservoir discharge quality, the stream flow routing tape, the tributary inflow hydrographs and associated water quality, and other meteorological, biological and chemical data serve as input to the stream quality module.

The above procedure may also be executed in reverse order where the stream flow hydrograph and water quality information from the stream module are prepared and saved for input to the reservoir module.

The basin model has the flexibility to run one element at a time (i.e., individual reservoirs or stream reaches) during testing and calibration phases but to run entire stream or basin systems during later production phases.

An output plot tape may be generated upon demand by the specification and system definition of an auxiliary storage device. This tape has the potential for being used as an automatic input data set for an online pen plotting system such as CALCOMP or ZETA. This procedure has been successfully implemented and tested at HEC, but is not included as a part of this document except for the capability to generate the required tape. Information regarding this capability is available from the HEC.

GENERAL MODEL CAPABILITIES

Reservoir Module

The methodology in the reservoir section of the program is applicable to aerobic impoundments that can be represented as one-dimensional systems in which the isotherms, or indeed the contours of any parameter, are horizontal. This approximation is generally satisfactory in small to moderately large lakes or reservoirs with long residence times. The approximation may be less satisfactory in shallow impoundments or those that have a rapid flow-through time. Systems that have a rapid flow- through time are often fully mixed and can be treated as slowly moving streams using the stream section of the model. The reservoir is capable of simulating an unlimited number of days or years (the chief constraint is computer and data preparation time).

Stream Hydraulic Module

The methodology in this section of the basin model includes six hydraulic computation options. The stream flow module is capable of handling hydraulic behavior within both the "gradually varied" steady and unsteady flow regimes. Peak flows from storm water runoff or irregular hydropower releases can be represented in the stream hydraulic module. Capability also exists to simulate steady state hydraulics.

Stream Quality Module

In the stream quality module the rate of transport of quality parameters can be represented for aerobic streams, and peak pollutant loads into the steady or unsteady hydraulic environment can be simulated. A steady state stream water quality analysis can be simulated only through specification of inputs to be held constant over a long period of time.

WEATHER USERS MANUAL (January 1986)

PURPOSE OF PROGRAM

Program WEATHER was developed to assist the user of the WQRRS and the HEC-5Q models with the preparation of the required input weather data. The program reads a NOAA National Climatic Center weather data file and outputs a file in the proper input format for either the WQRRS or the HEC-5Q program.

ORIGIN OF PROGRAM

The WEATHER program was originally written by Mr. Alfred Onodera in 1974 to provide the WQRRS user with input assistance. The program has been modified by Mr. R.G. Willey to provide more flexibility of time scales and output capability for both WQRRS and HEC-5Q.

GEDA: GEOMETRIC ELEMENTS FROM CROSS SECTION COORDINATES (October 198)

PURPOSE OF PROGRAM

The purpose of this program is to prepare tables of hydraulic elements for use by the computer Program "Gradually Varied "Unsteady Flow Profiles." It reads data coded in the standard format for "Water Surface Profiles, HEC-1" and produces tables of hydraulic elements for nodal points spaced a constant distance apart. The following hydraulic elements are calculated for each water surface elevation specified in the table: Cross sectional area, hydraulic radius to the 2/3 power, top width, average n-value, and velocity distribution factor. In addition to printing the hydraulic elements as each cross section is processed, the tables of hydraulic elements interpolated for each node are printed and the user may elect to have these tables also punched on cards.

ORIGIN OF PROGRAM

This program was developed at the Hydrologic Engineering Center by William A. Thomas.

THERMAL SIMULATION OF LAKES USERS MANUAL

U.S. Army Engineer District, Baltimore (November 1977) Distributed by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center (December 1980)

PURPOSE OF PROGRAM

When a dam is built across a stream, a totally different regime is established which profoundly affects the water quality within and downstream of the impoundment for many miles. The temperature structure within the reservoir is the most important consideration when establishing a management plan for water quality control.

When a study of reservoir temperatures is undertaken, it is important that all of the physical and meteorological heat exchange processes are included, so that consideration of the overall heat balance of the reservoir is assured. A sound theoretical approach will insure this. The analysis should provide a realistic assessment of the inter- relationship between project operations and the thermal variations within the reservoir. The use of input data which cannot be measured "in situ" should be kept to a minimum in order to insure that possible bias in results is eliminated. Finally, application should be straightforward and follow standard accepted procedures in order to provide confidence and guarantee uniformity in results.


SHP Stream Hydraulics Package User's Manual June 1988 Hydrologic Engineering Center US Army Corps of Engineers

BACKGROUND

In 1972, a stream simulation model was developed by Norton under a contract with the Sacramento Department of Public Works. During this same period, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) contracted with Water Resources Engineers to combine the stream simulation model mentioned above and a reservoir simulation model developed by Chen and Orlob to form a model capable of simulating the water quality within an entire basin and to apply the model to the Trinity River system in Texas. This model was capable of analyzing numerous physical, chemical, and biological water quality parameters in a river or reservoir or a river- reservoir system. A preprocessor was developed by the HEC to aid in preparation of input data. These two programs together were then called the "Water Quality for River-Reservoir Systems" (WQRRS) model.

The original river routines analyzed dynamic water quality conditions but were developed to handle only steady flow hydraulic conditions. In September 1974, the HEC contracted with Resource Management Associates (RMA) to add streamflow routing capability to the WQRRS model. This provided the model with a capability to dynamically route streamflows using either the St. Venant equations, kinematic wave, Muskingum, or modified Puls routing methods. The capability of the model to analyze steady flow conditions was expanded to include both a backwater analysis and a stage4low relationship specified by input data.

In 1976, the HEC contracted with the joint venture of RMA and Tetra Tech, Inc. to add to WORRS the capability of analyzing branched and looped stream systems and to add additional water quality and biological constituents to more adequately represent stream and reservoir environments.

With these latter modifications came new data requirements which were incompatible with the WORRS preprocessor. In January 1978, the HEC contracted with RMA to integrate the advantageous elements of the preprocessors into the simulation modules and expand and document their capabilities.

In 1979, the HEC contracted with RMA to expand the capabilities of the hydraulic simulation module of WORRS to include an option to automatically calibrate the modified Puls routine criteria and to provide documentation of the expanded hydraulic simulation module. The model was designated the "Stream Hydraulics Package" (SHP). The basic structure and capabilities of the SHP model are described on the following pages.

All of the above work was done under the direction of Mr. R.G. Willey of the HEC.

MODEL CAPABILITIES

The SHP includes six hydraulic computation options and is capable of simulating hydraulic behavior within both the gradually varied, steady and unsteady flow regimes in branched and looped stream systems. Peak flows from storm water runoff or irregular hydropower releases can be represented.

Included in the SHP is the capability to automatically calibrate the modified Puls routing criteria. This capability is considered by the HEC to be in a developmental state.

The computer programs described in this manual are operational on IBM PC XTs or compatibles. The programs are written in FORTRAN77 and should require only minor modification, if any, to run on other equipment.

The computer time requirements are quite varied and are a function of the length of simulation, computational time, size and complexity of the modeled system, and the hydraulics computation method selected.
 
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